1) How to transfer 50,000 images - don't use USB. I assume your current computer is connected to a router by ethernet or it can be. Hook your new computer to the same router via ethernet preferably 1000 base T. Make the directories on your old machine Shareable. On the new machine simply copy them from the old machine either by drag and drop or preferably by Robocopy. Robocopy is a part of Windows at least since Windows 7 and is a part of Windows 10. It is command line. BTW the Robo in Robocopy stands for Robust. It is a very robust copy utility and fast. Utilizing gigabit ethernet you are theoretically 100 times faster than 10 gigabit USB, although you will not see quite that much improvement in the real world. 2) For maximum reliability, good name brand SSD or HHD. SSD Samsung, Crucial, Seagate, Corsair, Intel. Try to stay with tri-level NAND, quad-level will wear quicker. For HHD Western Digital Black drives or Seagate. Be sure to get drives that use Conventional Magnetic Recording rather than Singled Magnetic Recording and purchase drives for desktop computers, not NAS, surveillance, or Enterprise drives (Enterprise Drives have different timings and may cause problems in desktops). 3) Any current CPU will give you much more performance than a 10-year-old i5. If you are asking what the difference is between contemporary i9, i7, and i5 CPUs the answer is the i9 will have more cores, usually faster cores, and more cache memory than the i7, which in turn will have more than the i5. Since both you and I tend to keep our systems for a while, it is best to over specify the system than under specify. Depreciated over 10 years the cost per year is not much. Software is getting larger and more complex, requiring more processing power as time goes by. Now the question is which CPU. If you go with the latest Intel Alder Lake, which uses a BIG Little architecture you will have to run Windows 11 for a schedular that can utilize that architecture. You will also have to choose between a motherboard using DDR4 or DDR5 memory; no board can use both. 4) The same goes for memory. 16 GB will get you by today, but 10-years-ago, 8 GB was considered big. I have 32 GB on my machine. The question you face today is do you get DDR4 or DDR5 memory. DDR5 is technically superior, but it is in very short supply and very expensive. DDR4 is readily available and at reasonable prices. DDR5 prices should moderate very late this year or next year. 5) GPU is another problem. GPUs are in very short supply and very expensive. The situation probably will not improve this year. Me, I would choose an Alder Lake CPU probably an i7-12700K or i7-12700, depending upon budget, and use the internal GPU. It should meet Adobe's minimum requirement. Later, when GPU prices moderate, if needed, I could always add a discrete GPU. One big cost difference between the 12700K and the 12700 beside price is the 12700 comes with a fan, the 12700K being a 125-watt part does not.