large format Camera movements

Discussion in 'Large Format' started by gina_spencer|1, Jan 10, 2000.

  1. Dear Sir/Madam

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    I am having trouble writing an essay on the large format camera as part of my Btec Nd photography course. I was hoping that you could help me?

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    I need to know more about shift, swing and tilt movements and the implications of schiemphflug and camera yaw.

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    If you could help me out this would be of a great help.

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    Thankyou

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    Gina Spencer.
     
  2. Gina, It seems what you're asking for is a brief tutorial on view
    camera movements. There are many texts on the subject, but perhaps
    you're in need of a overview as opposed to an in depth course and so
    I'll attempt to outline the important elements.

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    1. Shifts/Rise and Fall: Normally, the optical axis of the lens
    intersects a point exactly in the center of the film. By shifting the
    position of either the lens or film from left to right or vice versa,
    you will cause the image placement to change accordingly. The rise and
    fall movement is just shift turned sideways. The purpose of this
    adjustment is to allow you to recompose the image without tilting or
    panning the camera, thus avoiding upsetting the relationship of subject
    plane to film plane. Where you would use this might be when
    photographing architecture. To keep the sides of a building parallel,
    it would be necessary to keep the film plane parallel with the surface
    of the structure. If the building was tall and you wished to include
    its top in the image, by using the rise function, you could reposition
    the image on the groundglass without resorting to tilting up which
    would result in the sides of the building converging.

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    2. Tilts/Swings: It is with these movements that the Scheimpflug rule
    comes into play. Simply, if the subject plane, the lens plane (an
    imaginary surface that is perpendicular to the optical axis) and the
    film plane all intersect at one line, everything on the subject plane
    will be sharp regardless of how near or far it is from the camera. The
    classic illustration of how this works would be the image of railroad
    tracks where the camera is positioned between the rails and aimed down
    the tracks at the horizon. The tracks form the subject plane. The
    film plane (assuming a level camera) is perpendicular to the tracks and
    intersects it laterally across the rails. By tilting the lens panel
    forward to a point where the continuation of that surface (lens plane)
    just meets the the intersection of the subject and film plane, you
    would be free to focus anywhere along the tracks and have them in
    perfect focus from right under your feet to the point along the horizon
    where the tracks seem to dissappear! Swings are just tilts turned
    sideways. You would employ them wehn you need to keep a city block of
    store fronts in perfect focus from near to far.

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    You can manipulate certain cameras at both the front standard where the
    lens is mounted or the rear standard where the film goes. There are
    subtle differences in the way tilts and swings behave when you do them
    in the front as opposed to the rear of the camera. There are also some
    considerations related to the coverage of the lens (the size of the
    cone of light which the lens projects on the film) that sometimes makes
    it preferable to do tilts or swings at the rear as opposed to the
    front. It is also possible to combine a tilt and a swing in the same
    scene (compound Scheimpflug).

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    Another important point to make is that every movement will seem to
    solve one problem while at the same time creating another. What degree
    of movement and what type you use is determined by which problem is in
    greater need of being reduced and what compromise you are willing to
    live with. You can't have it all! Sometimes, though you can make it
    seem as though you've achieved just that!

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    I hope this helps and I'm certain others will have much to contribute.
     
  3. Try this page from the B&H web site:
    http://www/bhphotovideo.com/photo/large/intro/introduction.html.
     
  4. Take a look at Stroebel's "View Camera Technique". This book goes
    into great depth on the topics you are asking about.
     

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